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Congressional Review Act in the 118th Congress

The Congressional Review Act (CRA) allows Congress by a simple majority vote in both chambers — with limited debate and no possibility of a filibuster — to overturn recently issued regulations, so long as the president does not veto the resolution of disapproval. The CRA’s expedited process applies only for a short time after a final regulation has been issued and published in the Federal Register.

If a resolution of disapproval becomes law, the targeted rule is void and can have no effect. In addition, the agency is prohibited from issuing another regulation that is “substantially the same,” unless Congress authorizes the agency to do so through subsequent legislation. Because the courts have never determined how different a new regulation must be so that is not “substantially the same,” the scope of this prohibition remains unclear and untested.

The table below lists rules that have been targeted for repeal.


Lesser Prairie-Chicken Endangered Species ProtectionsFish and Wildlife ServiceH.J. Res. 29S.J. Res. 95/3/23 - Passed Senate 51-49

7/27/23 - Passed House 221-206

9/26/23 - Biden vetoed

9/28/23 - Senate override failed 47-46
Veterans Affairs Abortion CounselingVeterans AffairsH.J. Res. 31S.J. Res. 104/19/23 - Failed Senate 48-51
Allowing ESG Investing in Employee Benefit PlansLaborH.J. Res. 30S.J. Res. 82/28/23 - Passed House 216-204

3/1/23 - Passed Senate 50-46

3/21/23 - Biden vetoed
Heavy-Duty Engine Air Pollution StandardsEnvironmental Protection AgencyH.J. Res. 53S.J. Res. 114/26/23 - Passed Senate 50-49

5/23/23 - Passed House 221-203

6/14/23 - Biden vetoed
Duties on Imported Solar CellsCommerceH.J. Res. 39S.J. Res. 154/28/23 - Passed House 221-202

5/3/23 - Passed Senate 56-41

5/16/23 - Biden vetoed
Waters of the United StatesArmy Corps of Engineers
Environmental Protection Agency
H.J. Res. 27S.J. Res. 73/9/23 - Passed House 227-198

3/29/23 - Passed Senate 53-43

4/6/23 - Biden vetoed
Firearms with Stabilizing BracesAlcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and ExplosivesH.J. Res. 44S.J. Res. 206/13/23 - Passed House 219-210

6/22/23 - Failed Senate 49-50
Student Debt ReliefEducationH.J. Res. 45S.J. Res. 225/24/23 - Passed House 218-203

6/1/23 - Passed Senate 52-46

6/7/23 - Biden vetoed
Critical Habitat DesignationsNational Marine Fisheries ServiceH.J. Res. 46S.J. Res. 235/11/23 - Passed Senate 51-49
Northern Long-Eared Bat Endangered Species ProtectionsFish and Wildlife ServiceH.J. Res. 49S.J. Res. 245/11/23 - Passed Senate 51-49

7/27/23 - Passed House 220-208

9/26/23 - Biden vetoed

9/28/23 - Senate override failed 47-45
Small Business LendingConsumer Financial Protection BureauH.J. Res. 50
H.J. Res. 66
H.J. Res. 85
S.J. Res. 3210/18/23 - Passed Senate 53-44

12/1/23 - Passed House 221-202

12/19/23 - Biden vetoed

1/10/24 - Senate override failed 54-45
Wages for Temporary Foreign Agricultural WorkersLaborH.J. Res. 59S.J. Res. 25
Good Neighbor Plan for the 2015 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality StandardsEnvironmental Protection AgencyH.J. Res. 69S.J. Res. 31
Waiver of Buy America Requirements for Electric Vehicle ChargersFederal Highway AdministrationS.J. Res. 3811/8/23 - Passed Senate 50-48

1/11/24 - Passed House 209-198

1/24/24 - Biden vetoed

2/29/24 - Senate override failed 50-47
Income-Driven Loan RepaymentsEducationH.J. Res. 88S.J. Res. 4311/15/23 - Failed Senate 49-50

12/7/23 - Passed House 210-189
Tests for Residential Water HeatersEnergyH.J. Res. 91
Discrimination Complaint Processing PolicyFood and Nutrition ServiceH.J. Res. 92S.J. Res. 4210/26/23 - Failed Senate 47-50
Home Confinement Criteria for Inmates with COVID-19JusticeH.J. Res. 97S.J. Res. 47
Joint Employer StatusNational Labor Relations BoardH.J. Res. 98S.J. Res. 491/12/24 - Passed House 206-177
CybersecuritySecurities and Exchange CommissionH.J. Res. 100S.J. Res. 50
State and Local Pandemic Recovery FundingTreasuryH.J. Res. 110S.J. Res. 57
Highway Greenhouse Gas AssessmentsTransportationH.J. Res. 114
Weapons Sales to Saudi ArabiaDefenseS.J. Res. 53
Weapons Sales to EgyptDefenseS.J. Res. 54
Weapons Sales to EgyptDefenseS.J. Res. 55
Weapons Sales to EgyptDefenseS.J. Res. 56
Consumer Furnace Energy StandardsEnergyS.J. Res. 58
Beef Imports from ParaguayAgricultureS.J. Res. 62


Agencies engage in numerous actions, and under the CRA they are required to submit to Congress only those actions that are considered rules. If an agency does not consider its action a rule, it does not need to be submitted to Congress. However, if a member of Congress wants an agency action to be considered a rule under the CRA, a lawmaker can ask the Government Accountability Office (GAO) to determine whether the action should be considered a rule. While the response times vary widely, it takes the GAO on average 207 days to determine CRA eligibility, or nearly seven months. See this report for more details: GAO Rule Determinations for CRA Consideration.