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Congressional Review Act in the 118th Congress

The Congressional Review Act (CRA) allows Congress by a simple majority vote in both chambers — with limited debate and no possibility of a filibuster — to overturn recently issued regulations, so long as the president does not veto the resolution of disapproval. The CRA’s expedited process applies only for a short time after a final regulation has been issued and published in the Federal Register.

If a resolution of disapproval becomes law, the targeted rule is void and can have no effect. In addition, the agency is prohibited from issuing another regulation that is “substantially the same,” unless Congress authorizes the agency to do so through subsequent legislation. Because the courts have never determined how different a new regulation must be so that is not “substantially the same,” the scope of this prohibition remains unclear and untested.

The table below lists rules that have been targeted for repeal.


Waters of the United StatesArmy Corps of Engineers
Environmental Protection Agency
H.J. Res. 27S.J. Res. 73/9/23 - Passed House 227-198

3/29/23 - Passed Senate 53-43

4/6/23 - Biden vetoed

4/18/23 - House override failed 227-196
Lesser Prairie-Chicken Endangered Species ProtectionsFish and Wildlife ServiceH.J. Res. 29S.J. Res. 95/3/23 - Passed Senate 51-49

7/27/23 - Passed House 221-206

9/26/23 - Biden vetoed

9/28/23 - Senate override failed 47-46
Allowing ESG Investing in Employee Benefit PlansLaborH.J. Res. 30S.J. Res. 82/28/23 - Passed House 216-204

3/1/23 - Passed Senate 50-46

3/21/23 - Biden vetoed

3/23/23 - House override failed 219-200
Veterans Affairs Abortion CounselingVeterans AffairsH.J. Res. 31S.J. Res. 104/19/23 - Failed Senate 48-51
Duties on Imported Solar CellsCommerceH.J. Res. 39S.J. Res. 154/28/23 - Passed House 221-202

5/3/23 - Passed Senate 56-41

5/16/23 - Biden vetoed

5/24/23 - House override failed 214-205
Public Charge Ground of InadmissabilityHomeland SecurityH.J. Res. 41S.J. Res. 185/17/23 - Passed Senate 50-47
Firearms with Stabilizing BracesAlcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and ExplosivesH.J. Res. 44S.J. Res. 206/13/23 - Passed House 219-210

6/22/23 - Failed Senate 49-50
Student Debt ReliefEducationH.J. Res. 45S.J. Res. 225/24/23 - Passed House 218-203

6/1/23 - Passed Senate 52-46

6/7/23 - Biden vetoed

6/21/23 - House override failed 221-206
Critical Habitat DesignationsNational Marine Fisheries ServiceH.J. Res. 46S.J. Res. 235/11/23 - Passed Senate 51-49
Northern Long-Eared Bat Endangered Species ProtectionsFish and Wildlife ServiceH.J. Res. 49S.J. Res. 245/11/23 - Passed Senate 51-49

7/27/23 - Passed House 220-208

9/26/23 - Biden vetoed

9/28/23 - Senate override failed 47-45
Small Business Lending Under the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (Regulation B)Consumer Financial Protection BureauH.J. Res. 50

H.J. Res. 66

H.J. Res. 85
S.J. Res. 3210/18/23 - Passed Senate 53-44

12/1/23 - Passed House 221-202

12/19/23 - Biden vetoed

1/10/24 - Senate override failed 54-45
Heavy-Duty Engine Air Pollution StandardsEnvironmental Protection AgencyH.J. Res. 53S.J. Res. 114/26/23 - Passed Senate 50-49

5/23/23 - Passed House 221-203

6/14/23 - Biden vetoed

6/21/23 - Senate override failed 50-50
Wages for Temporary Foreign Agricultural WorkersLaborH.J. Res. 59S.J. Res. 25
Equal Opportunity Clause Religious Exemption RuleLaborH.J. Res. 61S.J. Res. 27

S.J. Res. 36
Good Neighbor Plan for the 2015 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality StandardsEnvironmental Protection AgencyH.J. Res. 69S.J. Res. 31
Waiver of Buy America Requirements for Electric Vehicle ChargersFederal Highway AdministrationS.J. Res. 3811/8/23 - Passed Senate 50-48

1/11/24 - Passed House 209-198

1/24/24 - Biden vetoed

2/29/24 - Senate override failed 50-47
Circumvention of Lawful Pathways to CitizenshipHomeland SecurityH.J. Res. 83S.J. Res. 41
Income-Driven Loan RepaymentsEducationH.J. Res. 88S.J. Res. 4311/15/23 - Failed Senate 49-50

12/7/23 - Passed House 210-189
Tests for Residential Water HeatersEnergyH.J. Res. 91
Discrimination Complaint Processing PolicyFood and Nutrition ServiceH.J. Res. 92S.J. Res. 4210/26/23 - Failed Senate 47-50
Home Confinement Criteria for Inmates with COVID-19JusticeH.J. Res. 97S.J. Res. 47
Joint Employer StatusNational Labor Relations BoardH.J. Res. 98S.J. Res. 491/12/24 - Passed House 206-177

4/10/24 - Passed Senate 50-48

5/3/24 - Biden vetoed

5/7/24 - House override failed 214-191
CybersecuritySecurities and Exchange CommissionH.J. Res. 100S.J. Res. 50
Updates to Davis-BaconLaborH.J. Res. 103
Aircraft Lead EmissionsEnvironmental Protection AgencyS.J. Res. 52
Digital Discrimination PreventionFederal Communications CommissionH.J. Res. 107S.J. Res. 64
Safeguards for Crypto AssetsSecurities and Exchange CommissionH.J. Res. 109S.J. Res. 595/8/24 - Passed House 228-182

5/16/24 - Passed Senate 60-38
State and Local Pandemic Recovery FundingTreasuryH.J. Res. 110S.J. Res. 575/15/24 - Failed Senate 46-49
Consumer Furnace Energy StandardsEnergyH.J. Res. 111S.J. Res. 585/21/24 - Passed Senate 50-45
Beef Imports from ParaguayAgricultureH.J. Res. 115S.J. Res. 623/21/24 - Passed Senate 70-25
Highway Greenhouse Gas Emission MeauresFederal Highway AdministrationH.J. Res. 114S.J. Res. 614/10/24 - Passed Senate 53-47
Employee or Independent Contractor Classification Under the FLSALaborH.J. Res. 116S.J. Res. 63
National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate MatterEnvironmental Protection AgencyH.J. Res. 117S.J. Res. 65
Private Fund AdvisersSecurities and Exchange CommissionH.J. Res. 119
Guidance on Nonbank Financial Company DeterminationsFinancial Stability Oversight CouncilH.J. Res. 120
Credit Card Junk FeesConsumer Financial Protection BureauH.J. Res. 121

H.J. Res. 122
S.J. Res. 70
Chemical ReleasesEnvironmental Protection AgencyH.J. Res. 123
Climate-Related Financial RisksOffice of the Comptroller of the CurrencyH.J. Res. 124
Climate-Related Financial RisksFederal ReserveH.J Res. 125
Climate-Related Financial RisksFederal Deposit Insurance CorporationH.J. Res. 126
Climate Disclosures for InvestorsSecurities and Exchange CommissionH.J. Res. 127S.J. Res. 72
Oil and Gas Climate EmissionsEnvironmental Protection AgencyH.J. Res. 128S.J. Res. 71
Partnerships with Faith-Based and Neighborhood OrganizationsEducation
Homeland Security
International Development
Housing and Urban Development
Veterans Affairs
Health and Human Services
S.J. Res. 73
Short-Term, Limited-Duration Insurance and Independent, Noncoordinated Excepted Benefits CoverageLaborS.J. Res. 76
Fluid Mineral Leases and Leasing ProcessBureau of Land ManagementS.J. Res. 78
Short-Term Insurance Benefits CoverageLabor
Health and Human Services
H.J. Res. 129
Train Crew Size Safety RequirementsFederal Railroad AdministrationH.J. Res. 130
Multi-Pollutant Emissions StandardsEnvironmental Protection AgencyH.J. Res. 131
Labor Agreements for Federal Construction ProjectsDefense
General Services Administration
H.J. Res. 132
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards for Heavy-Duty VehiclesEnvironmental Protection AgencyH.J. Res. 133
Protections for Temporary Agriculture WorkersLaborH.J. Res. 134

H.J. Res. 135
Multi-Pollutant Emissions Standards for Light-Duty and Medium-Duty VehiclesEnvironmental Protection AgencyH.J. Res. 136
Short-Term, Limited-Duration Insurance and Independent, Noncoordinated Excepted Benefits CoverageLaborH.J. Res. 137
Eligibility of DACA Recipients for a Qualified Health PlanCenters for Medicare & Medicaid ServicesH.J. Res. 138

H.J. Res. 146
Minimum Staffing Standards for Long-Term Care FacilitiesCenters for Medicare & Medicaid ServicesH.J. Res. 139
Prohibited Transaction Exemption 2020-02LaborH.J. Res. 140
Prohibited Transaction Exemption 84-24LaborH.J. Res. 141
Retirement Security Rule: Definition of an Investment Advice FiduciaryLaborH.J. Res. 142S.J. Res. 79
Regulations Pertaining to Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and PlantsFish and Wildlife ServiceS.J. Res. 80
Prohibited Transaction Exemptions 75-1, 77-4, 80-83, 83-1, and 86-128LaborH.J. Res. 143
Interagency CooperationNational Marine Fisheries ServiceS.J. Res. 81
Definition of Dealer in FirearmsAlcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives
H.J. Res. 144S.J. Res. 83
Medical Devices; Laboratory Developed TestsFood and Drug AdministrationH.J. Res 145S.J. Res. 82
Implementation of Section 4 of the Endangered Species ActFish and Wildlife ServiceS.J. Res. 84
Implementation of Section 4 of the Endangered Species ActNational Marine Fisheries ServiceS.J. Res. 85
Interagency CooperationFish and Wildlife ServiceS.J. Res. 86
Worker Walkaround Representative Designation ProcessOccupational Safety and Health AdministrationH.J. Res. 147
Clean Vehicle CreditsTreasuryH.J. Res. 148S.J. Res. 87
Grizzly Bears in the North Cascades Ecosystem, Washington StateFish and Wildlife ServiceH.J. Res. 149
National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Coal- and Oil-Fired Electric UtilitiesEnvironmental Protection AgencyH.J. Res. 150S.J. Res. 88
Supplemental Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Steam Electric Power Generating Point Source CategoryEnvironmental Protection AgencyH.J. Res. 151


Agencies engage in numerous actions, and under the CRA they are required to submit to Congress only those actions that are considered rules. If an agency does not consider its action a rule, it does not need to be submitted to Congress. However, if a member of Congress wants an agency action to be considered a rule under the CRA, a lawmaker can ask the Government Accountability Office (GAO) to determine whether the action should be considered a rule. While the response times vary widely, it takes the GAO on average 207 days to determine CRA eligibility, or nearly seven months. See this report for more details: GAO Rule Determinations for CRA Consideration.